Saturday, March 14, 2020

Gullivers Travels Essay Example

Gullivers Travels Essay Example Gullivers Travels Paper Gullivers Travels Paper In this extract of Gullivers Travels, Gulliver has just been attacked by a herd of Yahoos throwing excrement at him, and his rescuers, the Houyhnhnms, observe him. Swift juxtaposes Gullivers human vanity with the calm, rational nature of the Houyhnhnms to satirise the human assumption of being the most morally and rationally superior species. This is significant preparation for Gullivers moral realisation towards the end of the book. This portrayal of Gulliver is perhaps a response against the Renaissance period views where mankind was celebrated as the ultimate being, and instead the neo-classical genre influence, where mankind was viewed as imperfect and inherently sinful but can redeem himself by a constant struggle towards humility, is strongly ingrained in the text. Gullivers belief that humankind is the most superior species, which has been developed throughout his journeys, carries on to Houyhnhnmland, as suggested by Swifts choice of images and words. One aspect of the extract that reveals Gullivers vanity as a human is his clothing. He makes several references in the first paragraph to his clothing: his hat is discomposed by the horses, and the fact that he was forced to adjust it better shows that vanity, in the form of concealing imperfections through clothing, is an innate part of humans. The Houyhnhnms unfamiliarity with clothing such as his coat, an unnatural covering for the body, thus highlights their belief in living in harmony with nature, and this neo-classical type of conservatism is presented as a much better way of life as it escapes vanity. Another aspect showing Gullivers pride in being human is his self-proclaimed strength of : Secondly, it will analyze Voyage I as topical in nature wherein Swift satirizes the European politics of eighteenth century and conclude by briefly commenting on Swifts message behind his use of political satire in Gullivers Travels. The theme or the structure of a book is what draws readers to it and hence success of the book largely depends on it. Although a lot of controversy is associated with Gullivers Travels, the fact cannot be ignored that it has sold millions of copies till now. The book is cast in the convention of an adventure story which is well reflected from its title, Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World or as it is popularly called Gullivers Travels. On the periphery the book appears as the tale of a simple Englishmans journey into the unknown and remote nations- Lilliput, Brobdingnag, Laputa, Balnibarbi, Glubbdubdrib, Luggnagg, Japan and Houyhnhnms and his experience on these voyages. Swift uses the device of verisimilitude in the novel to project his fantasy world as credible. In a work of fantasy, a writer creates impossible characters, places and situations and asks the readers to pretend that they are real. To help the reader in this task, the writer tells his tale in such a way that he makes it seem credible- that is, he gives it verisimilitude. Swifts use of first person narrative, giving his imaginary characters and places some real-world characteristics, addressing his reader directly and following each voyage to an unreal world with a voyage back to the real world can be attributed to the literary device of verisimilitude: But at the same time the reader can hardly conceive my astonishment, to behold an sland in the air, inhabited by men, who were able (as it should seem) to raise or sink, or put it into progressive motion, as they pleased. However, a lot of issues are hidden beneath the novel. Though he has cast his novel in the genre of an adventure story yet, he criticizes and ridicules other travel writers of his day. Gulliver, in the novel frequently says that he will not trouble the reader with detailed descriptions of a particular episode in his travels. Such statements are the authors jibe at travel writers who tend to inflate their descriptions with a prolixity of insignificant details. Most of all, the novel is a scathing attack on the eighteenth century European politics which will form the subsequent discussion of the essay. The most obvious joke in the title of Swifts Travels into several Remote Nations of the World is that what purports to be a chronicle of several excursions to remote nations turns out to be a satiric anatomy of specifically English attitudes and values. To write about public affairs or to criticize public men with any freedom invited censorship for the writer unless he uses literary artifices of various kinds to express his opinions with impunity. Perhaps this is why, Swift casts his novel in the garb of an adventure story to escape censorship and criticize the eighteenth century English society. Censure, according to Swift, is the tax a man pays to the public for being eminent. The text is a political satire in the sense that it exposes the mechanisms of court officials, corruption and degrading human values which fostered in the eighteenth century Europe. In his preface to The Battle of the Books, Swift writes, Satire is a sort of glass wherein beholders do generally discover everybodys face but their own, which is the chief reason so few are offended by it. In the book, many figures which seem to be imaginary are meant to depict real personages, or at all events are drawn from them. Swift in one of his letters to Alexander Pope regarding the book wrote, I have employed my time in finishing, correcting, amending and transcribing my Travels in four parts complete, newly augmented, and intended for the press when the world shall deserve them, or rather when a printer shall be found brave enough to venture his ears. This reference to the printers ears highlights as C. H. Firth says, the book contained political allusions which might bring the publisher to the pillory, and draw upon him the fate which befell Defoe. Ample political allusions abound in Voyage I of the book. Some are to the events of Queen Annes reign and others to events in the reign of King George I. The first part of Gullivers voyage to Lilliput has no political significance. In fact, the place appears to be an utopian land and its inhabitants as generous and kind: I now considered myself as bound by the laws of hospitality to a people who had treated me with so much expense and magnificence. However, as Gulliver progresses his story, Lilliput ceases to be Utopia and becomes England itself, instead of being an example to England. Sycophancy is practiced by the court officials who will go to any length to win favors from the Queen and lords. Swift, thus through the episode of rope-dancing performed upon a slender white thread criticizes the obnoxious practices of court officials: This diversion is only practiced by those persons who are candidates for great employments, and high favour at court. Gulliver further says, But the danger is much greater when the ministers themselves are commanded to show their dexterity; for by contending to excel themselves and their fellows, they strain so far, that there is hardly one of them who hath not received a fall, and some of them two or three. The image of Lilliput as England becomes clear when Reldresal says, We labour under two mighty evils; a violent faction at home, and the danger of an invasion by a most potent enemy from abroad. In Lilliput there are two struggling parties called Tramecksan and Slameckson, from the high and low heels on their shoes, by which they distinguish themselves. These allude the Tories and Whigs, Englands political parties and the potent enemy abroad is the island of Blefuscu which typifies France, Englands arch-rival. The emperor of Lilliput wants Gulliver to invade Blefuscu and could think of nothing less than reducing the whole Empire of Blefuscu into a province, and governing it by Viceroy; of destroying the Big-Endian exiles, and compelling that people to break the smaller end of their eggs, by which he would remain sole monarch of the whole world. This symbolizes Londons colonial enterprise who despite being a small nation like Lilliput had a number of nations under its control and the Lilliputian Emperors using of Gulliver reflects the British thrones using of and ally. The religious war between Lilliput and Blefuscu symbolizes the quarrel between England and France over the nature of sacrament and differences in communion of the catholic and Anglican Churches. Swifts use of the struggling parties, Tramecksan and Slameckson is his immediate jibe at European politics. Through their quarrel, Swift satirizes the War of the Spanish Succession. The Whigs had conducted a war against the Roman Catholic leaders of France and Spain. Although it had its religious overtones, the war also involved trading rights with the colonies in America. However, the Tories led by Harley and Bolingbroke after coming to power, began to negotiate with the French thus resulting in the peace treaty of Utrecht, 1713. Their naval policy, they said destroyed the Spanish fleet. However, the Whigs being unsatisfied later accused the Tories of treason because of a failure to get colonies and parts from France and Spain. In light of this Swifts remark holds very true, We have just enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another. The ingratitude of the British throne towards its men of service is highly condemned by Swift and finds expression in the fire episode of Chapter 5. Gulliver is instrumental in saving the rest of the palace but the Queen instead vows revenge against Gulliver for urinating in the precincts of the palace which was later included in the articles of impeachment against him. This incident is an allegorical representation of certain incidents in Swifts life. Mr. Dennis says, Queen Anne was so much disgusted with the Tale of a Tub that in spite of Swifts political services, she could never be induced to give him preferment in the Church. Swifts satirical writings largely stood in the way of his promotion. He failed to get the Irish Bishopric in 1708 and it was with great difficulty that he obtained the deanery in 1713. All these can be attributed to the influence of the Duchess of Somerset, Dr. Sharp, the Archbishop of York, the earl of Nottingham and Robert Walpole. In the book, Gulliver r efers to Bolgolam, the Admiral of the Realm as his mortal enemy and his malice is constantly mentioned and insisted upon. Bolgolam typifies the Earl of Nottingham who used his private influences to stop Swifts preferment and opposed the Schism Act saying that it was dangerous because it gave too much power to the bishops. The character of Flimnap is a representative of Sir Robert Walpole under whose administration England became a fountainhead of corruption. Swifts critique of England under Walpole echoes Samuel Johnsons diatribe of the same in his poem London: all are Slaves to Gold, Where Looks are Merchandise, and Smiles are sold, Where won by Bribes, by Flatteries implord, The Groom retails the Favours of his Lord. The Kings cushions which saves Flimnap from breaking his neck symbolizes the Duchess of Kendal, one of the Kings mistresses, by whose influence Walpole, after his fall from power in 1717, was again restored to favor. Bolgolam, Flimnap and the other court officials conspiracy against Gulliver is indicative of the malice practiced by the court officials of King George I who instead of looking after the nation and performing their duties were only interested in bickering, gaining favors and opposing to anyone who stood in their way of making profit. This is perfectly highlighted in Dean Swifts quote, When a true genius appears in this world, you may know him by this sign that the dunces are all in confederacy against him. The account of the silken threads- green, red and blue given to the courtiers showing most agility in leaping over or creeping under a stick signify the various orders of the Thistle, Bath and the Garter. By alluding to this, Swift attacks the policy of George I who used these orders as cheap ways of buying political support from social climbers which increased corruption and sycophancy in the English society all the more. Gullivers escape to Blefuscu to escape trial provides the bitterest satiric attack on hypocrisy, ingratitude and cruelty by the eighteenth century English society. Bolingbroke, Swifts friend had brought a great war to an end but was denounced by his political opponents and accused of treason which made him flee England. Thus, Swifts scathing attack and political allusions in Book I of Gullivers Travels serve as a powerful critique of European politics. Swift has been criticized for being a misanthropist. However, his misanthropy arises out of his disappointment in human kind- he is constantly frustrated by what men do as opposed to what they ought to do. Through his satiric attempt at exposing the European politics, Swift intends to give a moral message to the people- to view themselves as he viewed humankind, as creatures that were not fulfilling their potential to be truly great but were simply flaunting the trappings of greatness. The main object of satire in the book is human nature itself, specifically mans pride as it manifests in pettiness, grossness, rational absurdity, and animality (Tuveson). Gullivers character, as a satirical device, serves Swifts ends by being both a mouthpiece for some of Swifts ideals and criticisms and as an illustration of them so that people can recognize their follies and correct their vices. For critics such as Dobree, the book is in a sense, a tragic work n that it is the picture of mans collapse before his corrupt nature, and of his defiance in face of the collapse. However for Swift, humbling human pride, enabling a more honest self-assessment was absolutely vital to addressing the suffering and injustice so prevalent in human life. Contrary to many who label swift a misanthropist, only a man who cared deeply about humanity could have produced a work like Gullivers Travels. As we travel with Gulliver, through the voyages, Swift brilliantly peels away our pride and pretensions, layer by layer, until he shows us what we are and challenges us, intensely and urgently, to be better. In the words of Louis A. Landa, Many looked about and saw widely prevailing infection, a culture losing its vigor and its better values, under the impact of bribery, luxury, political faction But only a person of the rarest gifts, such as Swift, could transmute these into an imperishable imaginative comment on the nature of man and society.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Letter From Birmingham Jail - Essay Example 38). Kind does utilize rhetorical questions to persuade the readers (pg. 29). He addresses the issues at hand with a high degree of professionalism. He also utilizes comparisons as an indicator of the efforts the Negros had to pursue freedom (Eskew, pg. 45). He is courageous enough to expound that he does possess the qualifications to lead the rest of the populations in demonstrations. Concisely, he says that he is in Birmingham because of the immense injustices available, and he is ready to provide a solution to them. The letter introduction sets an acknowledgement tone rather than attack. Primarily, he utilizes the words such as â€Å"My dear fellow clergymen† to initiate a sense of welcome and unison. He does not usher in an argument, but rather brings up a sense of understanding. Such an attack to the religious men could increase the chances of washing away the respect they had for him. He even compares himself to the prophets, such as Paul who was called to save the Macedonians. The daring Paul was not afraid to leave his small Tarsus village to spread the gospel of Jesus. In the form of allusion, he persuades the clergy that he is sent and having an intrinsic urge to preach the freedom gospel to the people of Birmingham until they are free from injustice. Immediately after he addresses the core reason for the letter, he goes ahead to address the clergymen, to counteract their claims and arguments in a logical manner (Birt, pg. 16). In a calm manner, he points out that the clergymen are not concerned with the conditions or issues leading the rising trends of demonstrations in Birmingham. Such utilization of logos does instills common sense among the clergymen. Kind adds insult to injury by saying that the demonstrations were inevitable. The Negro community could not react in any other way, other than demonstrating. The clergymen did claim that the demonstrators were breaking the laws through

Monday, February 10, 2020

Science Standards Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Science Standards - Essay Example This is the relationship that is also seen between social studies and English, where students can implement English into global essays and so on. However, it is important for them to be able to cross link their studies in math and science because they are so interwoven into each other curriculums. One of the first methods from the math standards that I would immediately adopt is the use of technology to help student learn. Science is another technical learning area, and be incorporating as much technology as possible teachers can allow students to work hands on certain areas that they may not otherwise be able to understand completely. One of these pieces of technology would be the scientific calculator, which is used quite a bit during math curriculum. Using this tool in science class helps students take the calculator technology they already know from math class and much more easily implement it into science class. The other technological part of the math curriculum that I believe would also help students in science class would be the use of computers. The math standards have students starting in computer as low as the elementary grades, which are shown to greatly benefit student achievement.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

How Technology Effects Our Everyday Lives Essay Example for Free

How Technology Effects Our Everyday Lives Essay Technology in Society Today Today in society technology is used in every individual’s life. Society reacts to technology in many different ways, and technology plays the major role in everyone’s everyday life. One example is that there is a new iPhone coming out, the IPhone 5s and IPhone 5c. Individuals are waiting for this phone to come out, just for the upgrades that are not drastic from the iPhone 4. People use technology in their everyday life- cell phones for everything (calculators, calendars, alarm clocks, mail/texts) and I even use my cell phone to complete school work, like this discussion board in our class. Society depends on technology for new information, television, and even farmers use technology in their new tractors to keep up to date with prices of wheat and even may set a tractor to plant or spray in a certain area. Most individuals, including me, depend on technology to get through their everyday life. Today in society technology is used in every individual’s life. Society reacts to technology in many different ways, and technology plays the major role in everyone’s everyday life. One example is that there is a new iPhone coming out, the IPhone 5s and IPhone 5c. Individuals are waiting for this phone to come out, just for the upgrades that are not drastic from the iPhone 4. People use technology in their everyday life- cell phones for everything (calculators, calendars, alarm clocks, mail/texts) and I even use my cell phone to complete school work, like this discussion board in our class. Society depends on technology for new information, television, and even farmers use technology in their new tractors to keep up to date with prices of wheat and even may set a tractor to plant or spray in a certain area. Most individuals, including me, depend on technology to get through their everyday life. Today in society technology is used in every individual’s life. Society reacts to technology in many different ways, and technology plays the major role in everyone’s everyday life. One example is that there is a new iPhone coming out, the IPhone 5s and IPhone 5c. Individuals are waiting for this phone to come out, just for the upgrades that are not drastic from the iPhone 4. People use technology in their everyday life- cell phones for everything (calculators, calendars, alarm clocks, mail/texts) and I even use my cell phone to complete school work, like this discussion board in our class. Society depends on technology for new information, television, and even farm ers use  technology in their new tractors to keep up to date with prices of wheat and even may set a tractor to plant or spray in a certain area. Most individuals, including me, depend on technology to get through their everyday life. Today in society technology is used in every individual’s life. Society reacts to technology in many different ways, and technology plays the major role in everyone’s everyday life. One example is that there is a new iPhone coming out, the IPhone 5s and IPhone 5c. Individuals are waiting for this phone to come out, just for the upgrades that are not drastic from the iPhone 4. People use technology in their everyday life- cell phones for everything (calculators, calendars, alarm clocks, mail/texts) and I even use my cell phone to complete school work, like this discussion board in our class. Society depends on technology for new information, television, and even farmers use technology in their new tractors to keep up to date with prices of wheat and even may set a tractor to plant or spray in a certain area. Most individuals, including me, depend on technology to get through their everyday life.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Mary Shelleys Frankenstein and John Miltons Paradise Lost Essay

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and John Milton's Paradise Lost â€Å"Forth reaching to the Fruit, She pluck’d, she eat:/ Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat/ Sighing through all her Works gave signs of woe,/ That all was lost [†¦]† (PL 8. 781-784) In the gothic novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley weaves an intricate web of allusions through her characters’ expedient desires for knowledge. Both the actions of Frankenstein, as well as his monster allude to John Milton’s Paradise Lost. Book eight of Milton’s story relates the tale of Satan’s temptation and Eve’s fateful hunger for knowledge. The infamous Fall of Adam and Eve introduced the knowledge of good and evil into a previously pristine world. With one swift motion sin was birthed, and the perfection of the earth was swept away, leaving pain and malevolence in its wake. The troubles of Victor Frankenstein begin with his quest for knowledge, and end where all end: death. The characters in Frankenstein are a conglomeration of those in Paradise Lost. Frankenstein parallels Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, as well as God, while his monster acts an Eve/Satan mixture. The most predominant theme of this novel is the characters’ ever-present search for knowledge. It is this thirst for learning that spurs Frankenstein’s psychotic attempts to give life to inanimate tissue, ultimately causing his demise. Frankenstein, in this way, mirrors the character of Eve in Paradise Lost. Eve lives her most peaceful life in the Garden of Eden, her only job being to tend the plants in the Garden which she loves so much. In the novel Frankenstein, Frankenstein lives in an Eden of his own, though macabre in nature. His â€Å"garden of life† is actually mo... ...was influenced greatly by Milton’s work, evidence of which lies in the eerie similarities between the two. The allusions to Paradise Lost give the reader a story by which to subconsciously compare the characters of Frankenstein, thus also reiterating one of the main themes; the quest for knowledge and the resultant death. Following the death of Frankenstein, his monster utters his own last words. â€Å"‘But soon,’ he cried, [†¦] ‘I shall die. [†¦] I shall ascend my funeral pyre triumphantly, and exult in the agony of torturing flames’† (225). Works Cited Milton, John. Paradise Lost. 1667. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. 20 Nov. 2005. id=MilPL67.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/ modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=8&division=div1> Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. 1818. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

MEG: A comparison with Other Functional Neuroimaging Techniques

Understanding is important to development of more complex procedure and ensuring efficiency in any area of operations. One of the tools used to develop a proper understanding and therefore diagnosis of a situation is the image of the situation. Sciences, technology, medicine and engineering all need images to be able to develop structures and operate efficiently. In neuroscience, the development of an image of inner brain tissues is important to developing an understanding of a situation as it really is and therefore coming up with proper diagnostic and management approaches that will ensure the situation is addressed as it should. Life being what it is there are a number of choices that can be made in the approach that will be used for imaging. Each of these approaches has significant advantage and disadvantages and an understanding of the differences is important in making a decision on which one is best applicable depending on the parameters that define a condition (Kretschmann,& Weinrich, 2003). MEG is one of the most common imaging techniques and the development of an understanding of the differences that it exhibits relative to others is important to its use. Advantages. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) implements a system where magnetic fields are produced by the aid of electric activity in the brain through use of highly sensitive devices. MEG which is common in research situation and clinical settings is one of the most commonly used approaches to neuroimaging. Surgeons have especially found MEG important in localising pathologies and researchers have used it in determining the various functions of parts of the brain, neurofeedback and in many other activities relating to the central nervous system. Many of the advantages of MEG are a result of its nature and principles that it applies in operations. Compared to functional imaging techniques like EEG, IMG has a number of key features that makes it more desirable; these are often considered in determining what neuroimaging technique will be applicable in either research or clinical situations (Holodny, 2008). MEG implements a system where the functions of the brain are directly measured. The main reason as to why imaging is necessary is to ensure a proper understanding of the state that the brain is and getting direct measures of the function is important and reduces the chance of error. Functional approaches like fMRI and SPECT use what can be best describes as functional measures to determine the state that the brain is in. Functional approaches which use variables that depict brain metabolisms to determine the functioning of the brain can be quite misleading for there are a number of variables that will have to be considered under such approaches. Moreover, errors can occur in translation of the metabolism variables to those that depict the state of the brain (Hillary,& DeLuca, 2007). When developing an image the clarity of the image that will be developed is important. In neuroscience and many other areas where imaging has to be done in an environment that is highly controlled the ability to develop clear temporal images is important (Anschel, Mazumdar,& Romanelli, 2007). This is due to the nature of the brain which requires low exposure to external activities and thus the idea of testing or imaging is in fact risky to the brain. MEG is considered to be an approach that has one of the highest temporal resolution. Events that have a time scale of milliseconds can be resolved accurately. Functional approaches like SPECT have much longer time scales and therefore the resolution of activities and development of a clear picture of the state that the brain is in is not as easy in such methods. It is worth noting that the brain being the centre of the nervous system is important and has a number of activities or events that occur within any given instant. The high resolution provided by MEG comes in handy and is important in capturing such events is therefore a better diagnostic tool in assessing the functionality of the brain inn consideration of the nature of the brain. In addition to the excellent temporal resolution, MEG has high levels of spatial resolution in that sources or objects can be located with millimetre precision. The brain is a small organ and it is one of the busiest in the human person. Information about the brain should be clear and precise; the high levels of precision that MEG has comes in handy and is important in coming up with clear accurate information on the performance of the brain. Neuroimaging is considered one of the most frightening event by people outside the medical fraternity. One reason as to why this is so is the invasive techniques used by functional imaging approaches. Isotopes and exposure to ray and magnetic field are used in other functional approaches and this is not only scary but also increases the health risks associated with neuroimaging and reduces the frequency of imaging allowed. MEG is unlike these functional techniques in this aspect in that EMG employs a system that is non-invasive. These property gives it an edge over other sin that it is even possible for children and infants to be studied repeatedly. Experts in neuroimaging and science are of the view that the reason as to why MEG has been widely adopted is its ability to be used alongside other approaches as it adds on to the picture to develop a clear understanding of the brain (Martin,& Caramazza, 2003). While no one can dispute this fact practical application of MEG is quite easy as compared to functional approaches which could have also played a role in its development. Technology and the employment of aid in imaging are aimed at easing understanding of the brain functionalities (Gazzaniga, & Bizzi, 2004). The ease that comes with the use of MEG is important and could be an avenue through which future generations use to reduce the complexity that neuroscience as a discipline has traditionally been linked with. The approach implemented by MEG makes it possible for its application in a variety of brain imaging processes. Sensory, language and memory cortex can all be imaged by use of MEG. An approach that is adaptable to multiple conditions is far much better that the ones that display low level of adaptability. This ability reduces the need to conduct multiple tests on individuals and therefore reduces the risk in imaging and costs in terms of finances and time associated with repainting imaging. The modern society is highly health conscious and the risks that come with functional approaches and the invasive mechanism that they employ make them undesirable. Moreover, there is increase in the need for multiple brain testing due to an unexplained increase in the number of mental and neurological cases. Cancer is fast becoming a threat and one would rather implement a system that does not pose any risk of cancer if there is an alternative. Put plainly, MEG would be the method of choice against any functional approach in consideration of the mechanism employed and risk posed. The fact that MEG affords high levels of clarity without being invasive gives it an advantage over the most commonly employed functional approach, EMG which has the con of being invasive. It is worth noting that the levels of clarity that the two approaches attain are comparable. Disadvantages MEG despite all the pros associated with its use has a number disadvantages that may make its use undesirable. Just like the advantages, the cons are resultant from the nature of mechanisms that MEG employs and are therefore internal to MEG as an approach to neuroimaging. These cons may affect the effectiveness of the approach and even increase the associated costs which may make it undesirable. A key drawback in use of MEG stems from the fact that the signals that depict the state of the brain are small and are in a magnitude order that is smaller than typical signal in a clinical environment. It is highly probable that the normal clinic environment may obscure the signals thus most MEG systems employ a shielding to deal with the interference. This is an additional cost that comes on top of installation costs. The cost of shielding and installation makes MEG one of the costly approach to imaging. Anyone who has ever been involved with a medical case that involved the brain will always remember the ordeal due to its nature and cost. The cost of neurological care is high and the employment of costly approaches definitely has a bearing on this cost. In addition, the fact that there is risk of interference by outside forces calls for proper assessment of the environment and continued assessment to ensure accuracy of findings by monitoring interference. Such costs are undesirable in the modern context of healthcare where cost of provision is high due to the high costs of operations. The brain being the centre of the nervous system engages in nearly all kinds of activities. Being a living organ, the brain metabolism is a variable that must be considered in any approach that seeks to determine the state that a brain is in. No full analysis or imaging of the brain can be done without considering its metabolic activity for it has a bearing on the state that brain is in. MEG employs a system that ensures direct measures of the brain activity and disregards any metabolic activity. This reduces the robustness of information that can be obtained by employment of this approach. Diagnosis of any clinical case and ones that involve the physiology of organs often take on an approach where direct measures and rate of metabolism are all determined and analysed (Barkovich, 2005). This is not the case in the implementation of MEG. MEG is more technical than functional approaches, there is therefore need for neuroscientists and technicians to master the internal workings of the machine that provide them with MEG functionalities. In addition to the cost that maintenance of the system has, it puts pressure on the technicians to learn more on the system and this could temporarily infringe on their performance as professionals. This also puts the assessment and imaging at risk of wrong results due to errors arising from hardware or technological failure. In its common application, MEG is used in association with other functional approaches. This is because of its failure to put into consideration the metabolic aspect on physiological assessment. Direct readings are a result of underlying metabolic activities and an understanding of both leads to development of robust analysis. When implemented with other functional approaches, MEG is employed as a secondary approach that brushes on findings from the functional approaches. Despite all its advantages, MEG cannot be used as a standalone approach to neuroimaging where a complete analysis of a condition is required. This is a disadvantage that reduces its effectiveness in application to medical conditions where there is no need for direct readings. Conclusion MEG has clear advantages and disadvantages. Its advantages provide it with high levels of adaptability, accuracy, precision and reduction of risk. All these are important if it is considered that any blunder in analysing the brain could lead to loss of life. The sensitiveness of the brain calls for approaches that are less risky and accurate. On the contrary, the disadvantages which include high cost of implementation; the fact that it cannot be implemented alone and its disregarding brain metabolism have a direct bearing on its advantages. The advantages are realisable but they have to be achieved at a cost which may be high for the ordinary person though a full analysis must often involve functional approaches. Despite this clear reduction in the impact of the advantages, the inclusion of functional approaches results in a robust analysis and a more serious approach to provision of healthcare services which is worth far much more than the cost involved.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Afric The Cradle Of Mankind - 1571 Words

Ever since the oldest human remains were discovered in Africa, the ‘Cradle of Mankind’, it was establish that Africa was the birthplace of human species. Despite the source of human existence Africa has been plagued with conflicts and problems that was often rooted in European colonization. Due to the sheer mass of Africa many of its countries are categorized as underdeveloped, insubstantial governance, and poor human progression which negatively affects continental growth and poverty reduction. These issues that Africa face cripples growth, political prosperity and economic independence. AFRICOM represents a fresh start for African nations to trade globally and provides military protection for these nations. In conclusion, Africa is a crippled nation unable to live independently and ineffective with foreign aid. Historically, Africa was called the Cradle of Mankind due to Charles Darwin’s discovery in 1871. He predicted that the bones of human ancestors would be found in Africa. His prediction was based on the fact that the human’s closest living relative, being the great ape, are in Africa. Before Darwin’s hypothesis, it was believed that the first humans derived from Europe of Asia. It was 1925 and an archaeologist, by the name of Louis Leakey, was convinced that there could be evidence to support Charles Darwin’s theory. He and his wife, Mare Leaky, teamed up to find just that. Within time they were able to compile a substantial amount of evidence that showed