Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Mary Shelleys Frankenstein and John Miltons Paradise Lost Essay

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and John Milton's Paradise Lost â€Å"Forth reaching to the Fruit, She pluck’d, she eat:/ Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat/ Sighing through all her Works gave signs of woe,/ That all was lost [†¦]† (PL 8. 781-784) In the gothic novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley weaves an intricate web of allusions through her characters’ expedient desires for knowledge. Both the actions of Frankenstein, as well as his monster allude to John Milton’s Paradise Lost. Book eight of Milton’s story relates the tale of Satan’s temptation and Eve’s fateful hunger for knowledge. The infamous Fall of Adam and Eve introduced the knowledge of good and evil into a previously pristine world. With one swift motion sin was birthed, and the perfection of the earth was swept away, leaving pain and malevolence in its wake. The troubles of Victor Frankenstein begin with his quest for knowledge, and end where all end: death. The characters in Frankenstein are a conglomeration of those in Paradise Lost. Frankenstein parallels Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, as well as God, while his monster acts an Eve/Satan mixture. The most predominant theme of this novel is the characters’ ever-present search for knowledge. It is this thirst for learning that spurs Frankenstein’s psychotic attempts to give life to inanimate tissue, ultimately causing his demise. Frankenstein, in this way, mirrors the character of Eve in Paradise Lost. Eve lives her most peaceful life in the Garden of Eden, her only job being to tend the plants in the Garden which she loves so much. In the novel Frankenstein, Frankenstein lives in an Eden of his own, though macabre in nature. His â€Å"garden of life† is actually mo... ...was influenced greatly by Milton’s work, evidence of which lies in the eerie similarities between the two. The allusions to Paradise Lost give the reader a story by which to subconsciously compare the characters of Frankenstein, thus also reiterating one of the main themes; the quest for knowledge and the resultant death. Following the death of Frankenstein, his monster utters his own last words. â€Å"‘But soon,’ he cried, [†¦] ‘I shall die. [†¦] I shall ascend my funeral pyre triumphantly, and exult in the agony of torturing flames’† (225). Works Cited Milton, John. Paradise Lost. 1667. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. 20 Nov. 2005. id=MilPL67.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/ modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=8&division=div1> Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. 1818. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

MEG: A comparison with Other Functional Neuroimaging Techniques

Understanding is important to development of more complex procedure and ensuring efficiency in any area of operations. One of the tools used to develop a proper understanding and therefore diagnosis of a situation is the image of the situation. Sciences, technology, medicine and engineering all need images to be able to develop structures and operate efficiently. In neuroscience, the development of an image of inner brain tissues is important to developing an understanding of a situation as it really is and therefore coming up with proper diagnostic and management approaches that will ensure the situation is addressed as it should. Life being what it is there are a number of choices that can be made in the approach that will be used for imaging. Each of these approaches has significant advantage and disadvantages and an understanding of the differences is important in making a decision on which one is best applicable depending on the parameters that define a condition (Kretschmann,& Weinrich, 2003). MEG is one of the most common imaging techniques and the development of an understanding of the differences that it exhibits relative to others is important to its use. Advantages. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) implements a system where magnetic fields are produced by the aid of electric activity in the brain through use of highly sensitive devices. MEG which is common in research situation and clinical settings is one of the most commonly used approaches to neuroimaging. Surgeons have especially found MEG important in localising pathologies and researchers have used it in determining the various functions of parts of the brain, neurofeedback and in many other activities relating to the central nervous system. Many of the advantages of MEG are a result of its nature and principles that it applies in operations. Compared to functional imaging techniques like EEG, IMG has a number of key features that makes it more desirable; these are often considered in determining what neuroimaging technique will be applicable in either research or clinical situations (Holodny, 2008). MEG implements a system where the functions of the brain are directly measured. The main reason as to why imaging is necessary is to ensure a proper understanding of the state that the brain is and getting direct measures of the function is important and reduces the chance of error. Functional approaches like fMRI and SPECT use what can be best describes as functional measures to determine the state that the brain is in. Functional approaches which use variables that depict brain metabolisms to determine the functioning of the brain can be quite misleading for there are a number of variables that will have to be considered under such approaches. Moreover, errors can occur in translation of the metabolism variables to those that depict the state of the brain (Hillary,& DeLuca, 2007). When developing an image the clarity of the image that will be developed is important. In neuroscience and many other areas where imaging has to be done in an environment that is highly controlled the ability to develop clear temporal images is important (Anschel, Mazumdar,& Romanelli, 2007). This is due to the nature of the brain which requires low exposure to external activities and thus the idea of testing or imaging is in fact risky to the brain. MEG is considered to be an approach that has one of the highest temporal resolution. Events that have a time scale of milliseconds can be resolved accurately. Functional approaches like SPECT have much longer time scales and therefore the resolution of activities and development of a clear picture of the state that the brain is in is not as easy in such methods. It is worth noting that the brain being the centre of the nervous system is important and has a number of activities or events that occur within any given instant. The high resolution provided by MEG comes in handy and is important in capturing such events is therefore a better diagnostic tool in assessing the functionality of the brain inn consideration of the nature of the brain. In addition to the excellent temporal resolution, MEG has high levels of spatial resolution in that sources or objects can be located with millimetre precision. The brain is a small organ and it is one of the busiest in the human person. Information about the brain should be clear and precise; the high levels of precision that MEG has comes in handy and is important in coming up with clear accurate information on the performance of the brain. Neuroimaging is considered one of the most frightening event by people outside the medical fraternity. One reason as to why this is so is the invasive techniques used by functional imaging approaches. Isotopes and exposure to ray and magnetic field are used in other functional approaches and this is not only scary but also increases the health risks associated with neuroimaging and reduces the frequency of imaging allowed. MEG is unlike these functional techniques in this aspect in that EMG employs a system that is non-invasive. These property gives it an edge over other sin that it is even possible for children and infants to be studied repeatedly. Experts in neuroimaging and science are of the view that the reason as to why MEG has been widely adopted is its ability to be used alongside other approaches as it adds on to the picture to develop a clear understanding of the brain (Martin,& Caramazza, 2003). While no one can dispute this fact practical application of MEG is quite easy as compared to functional approaches which could have also played a role in its development. Technology and the employment of aid in imaging are aimed at easing understanding of the brain functionalities (Gazzaniga, & Bizzi, 2004). The ease that comes with the use of MEG is important and could be an avenue through which future generations use to reduce the complexity that neuroscience as a discipline has traditionally been linked with. The approach implemented by MEG makes it possible for its application in a variety of brain imaging processes. Sensory, language and memory cortex can all be imaged by use of MEG. An approach that is adaptable to multiple conditions is far much better that the ones that display low level of adaptability. This ability reduces the need to conduct multiple tests on individuals and therefore reduces the risk in imaging and costs in terms of finances and time associated with repainting imaging. The modern society is highly health conscious and the risks that come with functional approaches and the invasive mechanism that they employ make them undesirable. Moreover, there is increase in the need for multiple brain testing due to an unexplained increase in the number of mental and neurological cases. Cancer is fast becoming a threat and one would rather implement a system that does not pose any risk of cancer if there is an alternative. Put plainly, MEG would be the method of choice against any functional approach in consideration of the mechanism employed and risk posed. The fact that MEG affords high levels of clarity without being invasive gives it an advantage over the most commonly employed functional approach, EMG which has the con of being invasive. It is worth noting that the levels of clarity that the two approaches attain are comparable. Disadvantages MEG despite all the pros associated with its use has a number disadvantages that may make its use undesirable. Just like the advantages, the cons are resultant from the nature of mechanisms that MEG employs and are therefore internal to MEG as an approach to neuroimaging. These cons may affect the effectiveness of the approach and even increase the associated costs which may make it undesirable. A key drawback in use of MEG stems from the fact that the signals that depict the state of the brain are small and are in a magnitude order that is smaller than typical signal in a clinical environment. It is highly probable that the normal clinic environment may obscure the signals thus most MEG systems employ a shielding to deal with the interference. This is an additional cost that comes on top of installation costs. The cost of shielding and installation makes MEG one of the costly approach to imaging. Anyone who has ever been involved with a medical case that involved the brain will always remember the ordeal due to its nature and cost. The cost of neurological care is high and the employment of costly approaches definitely has a bearing on this cost. In addition, the fact that there is risk of interference by outside forces calls for proper assessment of the environment and continued assessment to ensure accuracy of findings by monitoring interference. Such costs are undesirable in the modern context of healthcare where cost of provision is high due to the high costs of operations. The brain being the centre of the nervous system engages in nearly all kinds of activities. Being a living organ, the brain metabolism is a variable that must be considered in any approach that seeks to determine the state that a brain is in. No full analysis or imaging of the brain can be done without considering its metabolic activity for it has a bearing on the state that brain is in. MEG employs a system that ensures direct measures of the brain activity and disregards any metabolic activity. This reduces the robustness of information that can be obtained by employment of this approach. Diagnosis of any clinical case and ones that involve the physiology of organs often take on an approach where direct measures and rate of metabolism are all determined and analysed (Barkovich, 2005). This is not the case in the implementation of MEG. MEG is more technical than functional approaches, there is therefore need for neuroscientists and technicians to master the internal workings of the machine that provide them with MEG functionalities. In addition to the cost that maintenance of the system has, it puts pressure on the technicians to learn more on the system and this could temporarily infringe on their performance as professionals. This also puts the assessment and imaging at risk of wrong results due to errors arising from hardware or technological failure. In its common application, MEG is used in association with other functional approaches. This is because of its failure to put into consideration the metabolic aspect on physiological assessment. Direct readings are a result of underlying metabolic activities and an understanding of both leads to development of robust analysis. When implemented with other functional approaches, MEG is employed as a secondary approach that brushes on findings from the functional approaches. Despite all its advantages, MEG cannot be used as a standalone approach to neuroimaging where a complete analysis of a condition is required. This is a disadvantage that reduces its effectiveness in application to medical conditions where there is no need for direct readings. Conclusion MEG has clear advantages and disadvantages. Its advantages provide it with high levels of adaptability, accuracy, precision and reduction of risk. All these are important if it is considered that any blunder in analysing the brain could lead to loss of life. The sensitiveness of the brain calls for approaches that are less risky and accurate. On the contrary, the disadvantages which include high cost of implementation; the fact that it cannot be implemented alone and its disregarding brain metabolism have a direct bearing on its advantages. The advantages are realisable but they have to be achieved at a cost which may be high for the ordinary person though a full analysis must often involve functional approaches. Despite this clear reduction in the impact of the advantages, the inclusion of functional approaches results in a robust analysis and a more serious approach to provision of healthcare services which is worth far much more than the cost involved.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Afric The Cradle Of Mankind - 1571 Words

Ever since the oldest human remains were discovered in Africa, the ‘Cradle of Mankind’, it was establish that Africa was the birthplace of human species. Despite the source of human existence Africa has been plagued with conflicts and problems that was often rooted in European colonization. Due to the sheer mass of Africa many of its countries are categorized as underdeveloped, insubstantial governance, and poor human progression which negatively affects continental growth and poverty reduction. These issues that Africa face cripples growth, political prosperity and economic independence. AFRICOM represents a fresh start for African nations to trade globally and provides military protection for these nations. In conclusion, Africa is a crippled nation unable to live independently and ineffective with foreign aid. Historically, Africa was called the Cradle of Mankind due to Charles Darwin’s discovery in 1871. He predicted that the bones of human ancestors would be found in Africa. His prediction was based on the fact that the human’s closest living relative, being the great ape, are in Africa. Before Darwin’s hypothesis, it was believed that the first humans derived from Europe of Asia. It was 1925 and an archaeologist, by the name of Louis Leakey, was convinced that there could be evidence to support Charles Darwin’s theory. He and his wife, Mare Leaky, teamed up to find just that. Within time they were able to compile a substantial amount of evidence that showed

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Literature And Poetry s Influence On Our Mind - 1842 Words

Literature and poetry have never failed to influence our mind. They let us have a profound insight into the human nature and make us feel as if we uncovered a secret of how our wishes and desires are not only ours and that others too have such similar longings. That way we do not feel isolated, but rather experience a sense of belonging to each other. Of all the literary masterpieces, only the works of Shakespeare have succeeded to bring and retain this particular emotion and that is why his works are highly popular and receives a massive attention. Shakespeare understood the intricate complexities of the human mind and the issues of psychology since he was present at the time when madness was an obsession of English people. Because of†¦show more content†¦From Hamlet, Ophelia and to Lear, these characters that have shown a composed and balanced disposition at the beginning of the play slowly begin to lose their thread of sanity after a series of catastrophic events. It show s how people who appear to be calm and collected from the outside sometimes are barely hanging on to their sanity. Shakespeare sees these outbursts of delirium as a beautiful demonstration of human consciousness and is completely fascinated as is evident in his tragedies. Similarly, Macbeth is one such tragedy that illustrates the various character developments an individual can go through. Also, Shakespeare has made several attempts to remove the barrier between the sex genders. He believed equality among both the sexes in the time when chauvinism was running rampant however, with the presence of a female sovereign he was determined to prove that human growth progress will be futile if there are restrictions on that area. It is interesting to realize that Shakespeare juggles both of these human characteristics and forms a foundation of his protagonists’ nature. Macbeth illustrates psychological aspects of the human psyche. Gender stereotypes, persuasion, conformity, aggression, guilt, envy, violence, hysteria and ambition. It is one of the most celebrated tragedies of Shakespeare and is considered his darkest and most powerful of plays. Macbeth follows the psychological battle

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Behavioral Effect On Nutrition - 1583 Words

Having a background in psychology led me to choose a topic that involved a behavioral effect on nutrition. When considering pica as my topic I looked at its relationship to nutrition, as pica is described as the ingestion of â€Å"non-food substances.† (Young et al 2010) With continued research into pica and nutrition, the association of iron deficiency and this disorder became pronounced.. While factors interact to cause iron deficiency, there is incidence of iron deficiency in the vulnerable populations of underdeveloped countries and in population subgroups at risk for incidence of iron deficiency. This is due to increased physiological requirements. It is in the population subgroups where there is a significant relationship between iron†¦show more content†¦(Miao et al., 2015). Pica has also has been found to be present in hundreds of animal species (Miao et al., 2014). Over the years, geophagia has been the most common form of pica observed. It has been as sociated with eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, as well as being â€Å"an adaptive behavior, with potential benefits including provision of iron and detoxification of harmful dietary components† (Lumish et al., 2014). In pregnant women, pica behavior has been associated with perinatal and maternal mortality and is more common than previously thought (Horner et al., 1991). â€Å"Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder affecting at least one third of the world’s population.† (Yadav and Chandra, 2011) It is one of the most frequent hematological conditions encountered by clinicians. Iron is needed for hemoglobin and cellular production. (Skikne and Hershko, page 251) Deficiency in iron can manifest itself in anemia of iron deficiency and in tissue iron deficiency, not related to anemia, with the two often coexisting. Iron deficiency is most prevalent in early childhood, in females due to menstruation and especially in pregnant females as â€Å"maternal iron requirements increase substantially to support fetal growth and placental tissue development as well as the increased hemoglobin mass during pregnancy† (Leong and Lonnerdal, 2012). In early childhood, between the ages of 1 to 3, the need for iron

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Harrison bergeron 2 Essay Example For Students

Harrison bergeron 2 Essay Harrison Bergeron Everybody was finally equal. They were not only equal before God and the law. They were equal every which way. Nobody was smarter than anybody else. Nobody was better looking than anybody else. Nobody was stronger or quicker than anybody else. This is a short, but powerful excerpt from the short story Harrison Bergeron. Not only does it make you wonder why everyone is equal, but as well makes you wonder how did everyone become equal? In the short story and the movie, Kurt Vonnegut presents a scary view of human society in the United States in the future, in which United States citizens are all uniform. This then leads to their loss of individuality, and therefore to the absolute deformity of humanness. Both the movie and the short story share these themes; they also have a multitude of other similarities, but also have just as many differences. These differences, irony and the symbolism between the two, are what I will be attempting to explore. The first apparent difference between the movie and the short story is that the short story takes place in 2081. In the story the government regulates everything, not just intelligence, but strength and beauty as well, and handicap people appropriately. The strong are forced to wear bags filled with lead balls; beautiful people are forced to wear masks so others would not feel unequal to them in looks. The overly intelligent are forced to wear radio transmitters in their ears, which are tuned to a government station that constantly bombards them with horrible sounds to scramble their thoughts. In the movie, the year is 2053 and everyone is forced to wear mind-altering headbands that rest on their temples. These headbands electronically modify intelligence, effectively decreasing everyones IQ to the desired average point. Unlike the story, in the movie, no one wears masks to conceal their looks and some are better looking than other making them unequal in appearance to everyone else. Also the only weight bags that are worn, is by one dancer on the television that wore a small ankle weight with no resemblance to the enormous weight bags that are described in the story. Another difference is that in the story Harrison Bergeron had the apparent status of a god among these average people. He was fourteen years old, seven feet tall, athletic, good looking, and a genius. In the movie, Harrison bares absolutely no resemblance to the one described in the story. He is portrayed as short and stalky, not very handsome. He looks closer to twenty-four than he does to fourteen, and although he seems bright, he is far from being a genius. Finally, in the story, the Handicapper General has more of a police status in this futuristic country; the head Handicapper General is a woman, by the name of Diana Moon Glampers. With her swift decisions and severe actions shows resemblance to that of a dictator. She does not have to wear any handicaps of any kind, but is responsible for the regulating all the handicaps. In the movie, the handicappers generals are far from being portrayed as a police authority. They are a secret organization of highly intelligent individuals, that are hand picked from the general population, that are in charge of running the country and coming up with better ways to make everyone equal. The leader of this secret organization is a man by the name of John Claxton. He plays the role of a godlike advisor, leading the organization behind the scenes. He advises and monitors society, the president, and all forms of media accessible to the public, determining what people can hear, say, watch, and do. There is also a bit of irony prevalent in the movie as well as in the short story. In the movie, Harrison is mocked and branded as an outcast for his intelligence, yet he is secretly being monitored by the secret Administers organization. It is also ironic that there is a necessity for highly intelligent persons in such a perfectly equal society. Study Of The Conceptual Frameworks Accounting Essay In this society the public only can see what the have been allowed to see, by this secret, non-equal, organization in this so-called .

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Perioperative Fibrillation And Term Risk -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Perioperative Atrial Fibrillation And Term Risk? Answer: Introduction Operation or surgery is the ultimate treatment provided by physicians to treat a patient and improve his or her health. However, numerous of physical, biological and chemical hazards that are lurking in the operation theatre make their profession risky (Bainbridge et al. 2012). The role of perioperative nurses are more risky as they help in the assessment, planning and implementation of the nursing care, the patient receives before, in between and after the surgery. Therefore, the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Board and the Australian College of Operating Room Nurses (ACORN) helps the perioperative nurses by guiding them and governing them in practice so that they are able to provide the patient with best care in such perioperative environment (Gialdini et al. 2014). The biological hazards such as blood, body fluids and tissue specimen of the infected patient can also lead to infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B and several other blood-borne diseases. Therefore ACORN stand ards makes sure that the perioperative nurses are provided with equal amount of care while serving for the patient in hazardous (biological) operation theatres (Bainbridge et al. 2012). This assignment will be discussing about the standards set by ACORN for the surgical concerns and the implication of these standards in attaining safety for perioperative nurses in surgical environment will be critically discussed. Further for the evaluation, the ACORN standards, the local and national health policy and literature review conducted with research articles of last five years. Furthermore, these implications will be discussed in the context of my practice settings and the changes should be made so that the practice is able to achieve success for both patient and perioperative nurses. According to Ghosh (2013), in the report of World Health Report Working Together for Health on Human Resources determines that the crisis level of health care workers in more than 57 countries is because of the unsafe work environment and protect for the staff. The researchers also agree to the fact that perioperative nurses are at higher risk in the operation theatre than any other healthcare personnel as the chances of their exposure to biological hazards is always higher (Marsh 2012). Still there are several lacks in the guidelines related to it in maximum countries. As the assignment is focused to biological hazards, the risk of it can cause several blood borne infections, hepatitis B and C and the severity of it can lead to HIV infection as well. These hazards can be of different types and according to Ghosh (2013), there are more than 5000 manual handling injuries are reported every year. However, the devastating risk of biological hazards affects the perioperative nurses most. Usage of sharp and pointed objects, working with infected patients and staying in contact with the infected person within the operative room having no such equipment to filter the air within, can cause severe infection to the perioperative nurses. Further, due to exposure to percutaneous injuries, blood-borne pathogens, blood splashes, contact or exposure to microorganisms and exposure to protein allergens present in the surgical gloves can also causes biological injuries to the perioperative nurse (Mellor and Hutchinson 2013). According to Ghosh (2013), more than 6 million perioperative healthcare professionals are at the risk of different blood-borne diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, and other potentially infected bacteria due to the exposure to blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid, peritoneal and cerebrospinal fluid and so on. The ACORN standards determined few rules and regulations so that perioperative nurses working in such risky environment can be secured from being exposed to such biological hazards. Therefore, the ACORN 2016-2017 standard was modified from its previous versions and published to include a suggestion to manage the biological hazard within the operative environment (ACORN 2017). This standard has five statement depending on which the entire standard is destined to help the perioperative nurses. These are standard for staff and patient safety, professional practice, asepsis and clinical care, equipment and environment related and management and staffing (ACORN 2017). The primary aim of this ACORN standards to make the healthcare personal immune to the biological hazard they face in the operation theatre and take preventive measures so that the chain of infection can be ceased. As a solution to different to these problems, this standards recommend the usage of personal safety equipment fo r the perioperative nurses. Hence all the healthcare systems in Australia , needs to follow these guidelines along with the national work and health safety guidelines issues by the Ministry of Health in 2015 need to be followed by each health district (MTAA 2017). The transmission of blood-borne infection and other severe infections within the perioperative system is primarily caused by mucosal or percutaneous exposure of the perioperative nurses to the body fluid or infected blood of the patients (Holmberg, Suryaprasad and Ward 2012). Further the physical injuries to used injection needles, sharp objects and cutaneous scratches and direct inoculation of those virus or bacteria through those injuries can also lead to chain of viral infections within the operation theatre (Thursz and Fontanet 2014). Further, the virus can also infect the perioperative nurses through colonizing the open eye mucosal surface, nose and sometimes from mouth (due to accidental or sudden splashes). Here it should be mentioned that without any direct contact to the mucosal or percutaneous tissues, these blood-borne diseases, HBV, HCV and HIV are not able to cause infection through exposure to skin further airborne transmissions are also not registered earlier ((Thursz and Fontanet 2014)). All the literature focused on this similar aspect mentioned by the ACORN standards and determined that prevention is the best policy to minimize the exposure of perioperative nurses to such biological hazards. The personal protection equipment is easily available in several healthcare facilities globally and those facilities utilize this device as the primary source to eliminate the biological hazards. Further research conducted for identification of the path, through which blood-borne infection is caused determine that within the medical surgery process the percentage of equipment caused injuries are more than 15%, which is the biggest cause for such infection (Mitchell et al. 2012). Further, Phillips, Conaway and Jagger (2012) conducted a research to understand the rate of percutaneous injuries within a surgery and determined that in all kind of surgeries such as general, orthopedic, cardiac, traumatic and gynecologic surgeries more than 50% of perioperative nurses developed injuri es. Therefore usage of personal protective equipment is advised by several researchers as according to Verbeek et al. (2016), using it can prevent the occurrence of infection by more than 30%. The use of personal protective equipment such as surgical gloves, eye glass and surgical suite can prevent the percutaneous and mucosal exposure to the infection and prevent the disease to be spread among the perioperative nurses. However, according to Edmond, Diekema and Perencevich (2014), the researchers found that despite of using PPEs, 2 perioperative nurses developed EBOLA virus infection from the surgical environment. Therefore, the need of reengineering of surgical suits and personal protective equipment has become mandatory. The ACORN healthcare standards was implemented in my healthcare system long ago and all the operative systems are equipped with personal protective equipment and preventive measures. However, as the researcher Lindsey, Hutchinson and Mellor (2015) said, the lack of proper education and professional training regarding the system has delayed the agenda of healthcare facility to protect its perioperative nurses. The healthcare facility did not provided operating staffs with the training of usage of personal protective equipment and hence all the preoperative personnel are unaware of the usage of it. However, after the implementation of the ACORN policy, the healthcare system implemented a risk assessment and management system in the facility that determines the rate of risk in the operational theatre by conducting internal audits every 15th day so that proper knowledge of the occurrence of the biological hazards can be assessed and further solutions regarding those can be implemented (U ?urlu et al. 2015). Further, as the ACORN policies are not mandatory in the state or territorial healthcare facilities, application of the standards in my healthcare facility is commendable as application of the standard is the first step to protect and prevent the perioperative hazards. However there are few recommendations, application of which can be helpful in attaining complete protection from perioperative hazards. The healthcare facility should provide proper training related to the usage of personal protective equipment to the perioperative personnel so that in case of biological hazard, they are able to remove it, by their own (Ball 2012). Further, as mentioned by Hill et al. (2012), creating smoke free operation theatre can reduce the risk of hazard by maximum amount. Further, the educational session should be provided to each multidisciplinary teams that are involved in the process of surgery. Further, providing training will help to eliminate the fear among the healthcar e professionals regarding the preventing measures and they will be able to use it in near future in any hazardous condition. While concluding, it should be mentioned that all the literature presented in this assignment determined that healthcare professionals are at constant risk while providing care to patients and these hazards are able to affect the healthcare professionals drastically. Biological hazard is the most prevalent hazard. The ACORN standard provides few guidelines and recommended to use the personal safety equipment and follow the immunization and prevention treatments within the healthcare facility so that the elimination of risk can become easier and efficient. Further the assignment explained the application of ACORN in my healthcare organization and determined the loopholes present in the system. Providing training and educational sessions regarding prevention and management of mucosal and percutaneous infections within the healthcare facility to healthcare professionals including multidisciplinary teams and perioperative nurses so that complete compliance with the ACORN system can be im plemented. References ACORN 2017.Standards for Perioperative Nursing in Australia. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018]. Bainbridge, D., Martin, J., Arango, M., Cheng, D. and Evidence-based Peri-operative Clinical Outcomes Research (EPiCOR) Group, 2012. Perioperative and anaesthetic-related mortality in developed and developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.The Lancet,380(9847), pp.1075-1081. Ball, K., 2012. Compliance with surgical smoke evacuation guidelines: implications for practice.ORNAC J,30(1), pp.14-6. Edmond, M.B., Diekema, D.J. and Perencevich, E.N., 2014. Ebola virus disease and the need for new personal protective equipment.Jama,312(23), pp.2495-2496.Ghosh, T., 2013. Occupational health and hazards among health care workers.International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health,3(1), pp.1-4. Gialdini, G., Nearing, K., Bhave, P.D., Bonuccelli, U., Iadecola, C., Healey, J.S. and Kamel, H., 2014. Perioperative atrial fibrillation and the long-term risk of ischemic stroke.Jama,312(6), pp.616-622. Hill, D.S., ONeill, J.K., Powell, R.J. and Oliver, D.W., 2012. Surgical smokea health hazard in the operating theatre: a study to quantify exposure and a survey of the use of smoke extractor systems in UK plastic surgery units.Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive Aesthetic Surgery,65(7), pp.911-916. Holmberg, S.D., Suryaprasad, A. and Ward, J.W., 2012. Updated CDC recommendations for the management of hepatitis B virusinfected health-care providers and students.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports,61(3), pp.1-12. Lindsey, C., Hutchinson, M. and Mellor, G., 2015. The nature and hazards of diathermy plumes: a review.AORN journal,101(4), pp.428-442. Marsh, S., 2012. The smoke factor: things you should know.Journal of perioperative practice,22(3), pp.91-94. Mellor, G. and Hutchinson, M., 2013. Is it time for a more systematic approach to the hazards of surgical smoke? Reconsidering the evidence.Workplace health safety,61(6), pp.265-270. Mitchell, R., Ogunremi, T., Astrakianakis, G., Bryce, E., Gervais, R., Gravel, D., Johnston, L., Leduc, S., Roth, V., Taylor, G. and Vearncombe, M., 2012. Impact of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic on Canadian health care workers: a survey on vaccination, illness, absenteeism, and personal protective equipment.American Journal of Infection Control,40(7), pp.611-616. MTAA 2017.ACORN Standards - MTAA. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Mar. 2018]. Phillips, E.K., Conaway, M.R. and Jagger, J.C., 2012. Percutaneous injuries before and after the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act.New England Journal of Medicine,366(7), pp.670-671. Thursz, M. and Fontanet, A., 2014. HCV transmission in industrialized countries and resource-constrained areas.Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology,11(1), p.28. U?urlu, Z., Karahan, A., nl, H., Abbaso?lu, A., zhan Elba?, N., Avc? Ik, S. and Tepe, A., 2015. The Effects of Workload and Working Conditions on Operating Room Nurses and Technicians.Workplace health safety,63(9), pp.399-407. Verbeek, J.H., Ijaz, S., Mischke, C., Ruotsalainen, J.H., Mkel, E., Neuvonen, K., Edmond, M.B., Sauni, R., Kilinc Balci, F.S. and Mihalache, R.C., 2016. Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff.The Cochrane Library.